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Kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa, Actinidia chinensis)



Interactions

Kiwi/Drug Interactions:
  • AntiasthmaticsAntiasthmatics: In a murine ovalbumin-induced asthma model, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) , standardized in vitro based on activity, resulted in decreased asthmatic symptoms (17).
  • AntibioticsAntibiotics: Antibacterial activity of Actinidia chinensis (leaves, fruit, stems) was found against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (152).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Consuming two or three kiwifruits daily for 28 days reduced ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 18% (p<0.05) (13). Concomitant use with other agents that inhibit normal platelet function could theoretically potentiate bleeding risks. In human research, consumption of kiwifruit decreased platelet aggregation (26).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In animal research, the methanolic and n-butanolic extracts of kiwifruit leaf (Actinidia deliciosa) had hypoglycemic activity (21). Constituents of Actinidia arguta, such as catechin-related products, inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products in vitro (153). However, human research has found that a significant effect on blood glucose or plasma insulin was lacking after the ingestion of a kiwi-containing drink by male athletes (45).
  • AntidiarrhealsAntidiarrheals: A water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta was found to reduce diarrhea in an animal model (22).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: According to preliminary laboratory data, kiwi may have antifungal activity (15) and therefore may have an additive effect when taken with other antifungals.
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines: In human research (on asymptomatic subjects with atopy), PG102, an extract of Actinidia arguta, resulted in reduced IgE compared to a control group (48). In animal research, PG102 isolated from Actinidia arguta reduced atopic dermatitis severity (154).
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: According to research in humans, consumption of three kiwifruits daily reduced blood pressure (47). However, conflicting results have been reported (45). Although daily consumption of two kiwifruits (Actinidia deliciosa) produced no effect on diastolic or systolic blood pressure, reduced plasma ACE was observed in male individuals (101).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In clinical research, hyperlipidemia was found to be a common metabolic adverse effect of PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) (48). However, in other research, consumption of kiwifruit resulted in decreased triglyceride levels (26; 13).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In animal research, extracts of Actinidia deliciosa had antitumor effects and prolonged survival (155). In vitro, n-butyl-alcohol extracts from Actinidia arguta induced apoptosis of human carcinoma of esophagus cells, with growth inhibition as high as 87.2% (156). In animal research, a polysaccharide from Actinidia chinensis Planch. had antitumor effects (157). In vitro, triterpenoids and planchols from Actinidia chinensis roots had cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines (158; 159). Other studies have suggested cytotoxic effects of kiwi (cultivar Hayward) in vitro (160).
  • Athletic performance enhancersAthletic performance enhancers: Results from preliminary research suggest that a kiwi-containing drink has beneficial effects on athletic performance (45).
  • Bone agentsBone agents: Catechin and epicatechin from Actinidia arguta induced proliferation of bone marrow cells, increased formation of myeloid colonies, and enhanced the effect of interleukin-3 on colony-forming units (29). Also, based on an ex vivo mouse model of decreasing bone marrow functions, 100mg/kg of catechin daily stimulated IL-3-induced colony-forming units (CFU)-c formation of the bone marrow cells.
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: In animal research, EFF1001, an Actinidia arguta preparation, had some beneficial effects on CADESI score and pruritus in dogs with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis; the extent of the benefit is not completely clear at this time (161). In animal research, DA-9201, an extract of Actinidia arguta, blocked the formation of dermatitis-like skin lesions (162).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: Common adverse effects of kiwifruit may be gastrointestinal (48), including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia (49; 50; 51), as well as acute pancreatitis (52). A water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta was found to reduce diarrhea in an animal model (22). In vitro, actinidin enhanced gastric protein (derived from soy, meat, milk, cereal) digestion, including pepsin or pancreatin, in a gastric digestion model (24; 25). Terpene constituents from Actinidia arguta inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (163). In animal research, ursolic acid isolated from Actinidia arguta had antilipase and prolipolytic activities (30). The authors suggested that this activity may aid in the prevention of obesity. In vitro, hydrolysis of substituted-phenyl hippurates by actinidin was compared to papain-like activity (164).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: According to secondary sources, caution is advised in patients taking hormone therapies, due to kiwi's high serotonin content. Theoretically, kiwi is associated with an increased amount of serotonin (165).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: The immunopharmacological effects of a polysaccharide from the stem of Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) ex Miq. were investigated; further details are not available at this time (27). According to a review, kiwifruit may upregulate immune and DNA/repair gene sets and/or downregulate a gene set related to immunoglobulin secretion (166). In animal, in vitro, and laboratory research, kiwi and kiwi extracts have been found to promote secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-6 (167), reduce levels of IL-4 and increase levels of IL-12 (154), decrease T(H)2 cytokine levels and increase T(H)1 cytokine levels (168), reduce levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 (22), and decrease percentages of IL-4-producing T cells and IgE-producing B cells (168).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: In human research, freeze-dried kiwifruit extract reduced symptoms of constipation (105). A water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta was found to reduce diarrhea in an animal model (22).
  • Pulmonary agentsPulmonary agents: Asthma and anaphylaxis due to kiwi allergy has been reported (61; 5; 71; 51; 150). According to secondary sources, kiwifruit contains calcium oxalate crystals (raphides), and reactions may include breathing difficulties, wheezing, and collapse. However, a survey suggests that kiwi, and other fruits high in vitamin C, may have a protective effect on lung conditions in children, especially wheezing (44). In a murine ovalbumin-induced asthma model, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta), standardized in vitro based on activity, decreased asthmatic symptoms (17).
  • Renal agentsRenal agents: Kiwi has been found to contain oxalate (46). According to secondary sources, caution is advised in individuals at risk for kidney stones.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Theoretically, kiwi is associated with an increased amount of serotonin (165). Kiwi plus herbs or supplements that alter serotonin levels may have an effect on the levels of serotonin in the body.
  • Weight loss agentsWeight loss agents: In animal research, ursolic acid isolated from Actinidia arguta had antilipase and prolipolytic activities (30). The authors suggested that this activity may aid in the prevention of obesity.
  • Wound healing agentsWound healing agents: In animal research, Actinidia deliciosa was found to benefits enzymatic debridement and healing of acute burn wounds (31).

Kiwi/Herb/Supplement Interactions:
  • AntiasthmaticsAntiasthmatics: In a murine ovalbumin-induced asthma model, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta), standardized in vitro based on activity, decreased asthmatic symptoms (17).
  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Antibacterial activity of Actinidia chinensis (leaves, fruit, stems) was found against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (152).
  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: Consuming two or three kiwifruits daily for 28 days reduced collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 18% (p<0.05) (13). Concomitant use with other agents that inhibit normal platelet function could theoretically potentiate bleeding risks. In human research, consumption of kiwifruit decreased platelet aggregation (26).
  • AntidiarrhealsAntidiarrheals: A water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta reduced diarrhea in an animal model (22).
  • AntifungalsAntifungals: According to preliminary laboratory data, kiwi may have antifungal activity (15) and therefore have an additive effect when taken with other antifungals.
  • AntihistaminesAntihistamines: In human research (in asymptomatic subjects with atopy), PG102, an extract of Actinidia arguta, resulted in reduced IgE compared to a control group (48). In animal research, PG102 isolated from Actinidia arguta reduced atopic dermatitis severity (154).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In clinical research, hyperlipidemia was found to be a common metabolic adverse effect of PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) (48). However, in other research, consumption of kiwifruit resulted in decreased triglyceride levels (26; 13).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In animal research, extracts of Actinidia deliciosa had antitumor effects and prolonged survival (155). In vitro, n-butyl-alcohol extracts from Actinidia arguta induced apoptosis of human carcinoma of esophagus cells, with growth inhibition as high as 87.2% (156). In animal research, a polysaccharide from Actinidia chinensis Planch. had antitumor effects (157). In vitro, triterpenoids and planchols from Actinidia chinensis roots had cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines (158; 159). Other studies have suggested cytotoxic effects of kiwi (cultivar Hayward) in vitro (160).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: According to preliminary laboratory data, kiwi may have antioxidant activity (44; 169; 10) and therefore have an additive effect when taken with other antioxidants. In addition, limited clinical trials have shown the potential antioxidant activity of kiwifruit (26; 101; 170; 102).
  • Athletic performance enhancersAthletic performance enhancers: Results from preliminary research suggest that a kiwi-containing drink had beneficial effects on athletic performance (45).
  • Bone agentsBone agents: Catechin and epicatechin from Actinidia arguta induced proliferation of bone marrow cells, increased formation of myeloid colonies, and enhanced the effect of interleukin-3 on colony-forming units (29). Also, based on an ex vivo mouse model of decreasing bone marrow functions, 100mg/kg of catechin daily stimulated IL-3-induced colony-forming units (CFU)-c formation of the bone marrow cells.
  • Dermatologic agentsDermatologic agents: In animal research, EFF1001, an Actinidia arguta preparation, had some beneficial effects on CADESI score and pruritus in dogs with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis; the extent of benefit is not completely clear at this time (161). In animal research, DA-9201, an extract of Actinidia arguta, blocked the formation of dermatitis-like skin lesions (162).
  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: Common adverse effects of kiwifruit may be gastrointestinal (48), including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia (49; 50; 51), as well as acute pancreatitis (52). A water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta was found to reduce diarrhea in an animal model (22). In vitro, actinidin enhanced gastric protein (derived from soy, meat, milk, cereal) digestion, including pepsin or pancreatin, in a gastric digestion model (24; 25). Terpene constituents from Actinidia arguta inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro (163). In animal research, ursolic acid, isolated from Actinidia arguta, had antilipase and prolipolytic activities (30). The authors suggested that this activity may aid in the prevention of obesity. In vitro, hydrolysis of substituted-phenyl hippurates by actinidin was compared to papain-like activity (164).
  • Hormonal agentsHormonal agents: According to secondary sources, caution is advised in patients taking hormone therapies, due to kiwi's high serotonin content. Theoretically, kiwi is associated with an increased amount of serotonin (165).
  • HydroxytryptophanHydroxytryptophan: Theoretically, kiwi is associated with an increased amount of serotonin (165). Kiwi plus herbs or supplements that alter serotonin levels may have an effect on the levels of serotonin in the body.
  • Hyperglycemics/hypoglycemicsHyperglycemics/hypoglycemics: In animal research, the methanolic and n-butanolic extracts of kiwifruit leaf (Actinidia deliciosa) had hypoglycemic activity (21). Constituents of Actinidia arguta, such as catechin-related products, inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products in vitro (153). However, human research has found that a significant effect on blood glucose or plasma insulin was lacking after the ingestion of a kiwi-containing drink by male athletes (45).
  • Hypertensives/hypotensivesHypertensives/hypotensives: In research in humans, consumption of three kiwifruits daily reduced blood pressure (47). However, conflicting results have been reported (45). Although daily consumption of two kiwifruits (Actinidia deliciosa) produced no effect on diastolic or systolic blood pressure, reduced plasma ACE was observed in male individuals (101).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: The immunopharmacological effects of a polysaccharide from the stem of Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) ex Miq. were investigated; further details are not available at this time (27). According to a review, kiwifruit may upregulate immune and DNA/repair gene sets and/or downregulate a gene set related to immunoglobulin secretion (166). In animal, in vitro, and laboratory research, kiwi and kiwi extracts have been found to promote secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-6 (167), reduce levels of IL-4 and increase levels of IL-12 (154), decrease T(H)2 cytokine levels and increase T(H)1 cytokine levels (168), reduce levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 (22), and decrease percentages of IL-4-producing T cells and IgE-producing B cells (168).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: In human research, freeze-dried kiwifruit extract reduced symptoms of constipation (105). A water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta was found to reduce diarrhea in an animal model (22).
  • LuteinLutein: Substantial amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin (30-50%) are present in kiwifruit (171).
  • PotassiumPotassium: Theoretically, kiwi may have an effect on the amount of potassium in the body, because kiwi is rich in potassium (1).
  • ProbioticsProbiotics: In vitro, Zyactinase® increased the growth of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus planetarium) (172)
  • Pulmonary agentsPulmonary agents: Asthma and anaphylaxis due to kiwi allergy has been reported (61; 5; 71; 51; 150). According to secondary sources, kiwifruit contains calcium oxalate crystals (raphides), and reactions may include breathing difficulties, wheezing, and collapse. However, a survey suggests that kiwi, and other fruits high in vitamin C, may have a protective effect on lung conditions in children, especially wheezing (44). In a murine ovalbumin-induced asthma model, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta), standardized in vitro based on activity, decreased asthmatic symptoms (17).
  • Renal agentsRenal agents: Kiwi has been found to contain oxalate (46). According to secondary sources, caution is advised in individuals at risk for kidney stones.
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Theoretically, kiwi is associated with an increased amount of serotonin (165). Kiwi plus herbs or supplements that alter serotonin levels may have an effect on the levels of serotonin in the body.
  • TocopherolsTocopherols: In human research, kiwifruit consumption decreased levels of gamma-tocopherol (102).
  • Vitamin CVitamin C: Kiwi may increase the amount of vitamin C in the body, because this fruit is rich in vitamin C (1). Based on urinary measurements, vitamin C status improved in athletes supplemented with Actinidia sinensis Planch. drink in one study (45). In human research, one or two golden kiwifruits daily (Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A') resulted in increased plasma vitamin C (26).
  • Vitamin EVitamin E: Theoretically, kiwi may have an effect on the amount of vitamin E in the body, because kiwi is rich in vitamin E (1).
  • Weight loss agentsWeight loss agents: In animal research, ursolic acid, isolated from Actinidia arguta, had antilipase and prolipolytic activities (30). The authors suggested that this activity may aid in the prevention of obesity.
  • Wound-healing agentsWound-healing agents: In animal research, Actinidia deliciosa was found to benefit enzymatic debridement and healing of acute burn wounds (31).

Kiwi/Food Interactions:
  • AvocadoAvocado: Kiwi should be used cautiously in those with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to latex and related substances, as kiwi has been known to have a cross-sensitivity with latex allergy (53; 57; 58; 61; 64; 70; 72; 51; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 80; 81; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 90; 91; 2; 55; 56; 59; 60; 94). It is clear that some latex allergens cross-react with plant-derived food allergens, producing the so-called latex-fruit syndrome, with evident clinical consequences. Although the foods most frequently involved are banana, avocado, kiwi, and chestnut, several others are also implicated (140). Kiwi taken with avocado may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • BananaBanana: Patients with a preexisting allergy to banana may be cross-allergic to kiwi (141). Kiwi taken with banana may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • ChestnutChestnut: Kiwi should be used cautiously in those with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to latex and related substances, as kiwi has been known to have a cross-sensitivity with latex allergy (53; 57; 58; 61; 64; 70; 72; 51; 73; 74; 75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 80; 81; 84; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 90; 91; 2; 55; 56; 59; 60; 94). It is clear that some latex allergens cross-react with plant-derived food allergens, producing the so-called latex-fruit syndrome, with evident clinical consequences. Although the foods most frequently involved are banana, avocado, kiwi, and chestnut, several others are also implicated (140). Kiwi taken with chestnut may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • FigFig: Kiwifruit may be associated with sensitization to Ficus allergens (fig fruits) (68; 71). However, one patient with an allergic reaction to Ficus benjamina, the weeping fig, verified by a skin-prick test, did not have a positive skin-prick test when tested with kiwi (82). Kiwi taken with fig may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • FlourFlour: Allergy to kiwi, poppy seeds, and/or sesame seeds often occurs in patients with a simultaneous sensitization to nuts and flour (92). The degree of cross-reactivity among kiwi, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, hazelnuts, and rye grain was found to be very high. Kiwi taken with flour may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • HazelnutHazelnut: Allergy to kiwi, poppy seeds, and/or sesame seeds often occurs in patients with a simultaneous sensitization to nuts and flour (92). The degree of cross-reactivity among kiwi, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, hazelnuts, and rye grain was found to be very high. Kiwi taken with poppy seeds may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • MelonMelon: Kiwifruit may be associated with sensitization to melon (145; 91). Kiwi taken with melon may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • NutsNuts: Allergy to kiwi, poppy seeds, and/or sesame seeds often occurs in patients with a simultaneous sensitization to nuts and flour (92). The degree of cross-reactivity among kiwi, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, hazelnuts, and rye grain was found to be very high. Kiwi taken with nuts may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • PapayaPapaya: According to secondary sources, individuals allergic to papayas may also be allergic to kiwi.
  • PineapplePineapple: According to secondary sources, individuals allergic to pineapple may also be allergic to kiwi.
  • Poppy seedsPoppy seeds: Allergy to kiwi, poppy seeds, and/or sesame seeds often occurs in patients with a simultaneous sensitization to nuts and flour (92). The degree of cross-reactivity among kiwi, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, hazelnuts, and rye grain was found to be very high. Kiwi taken with poppy seeds may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • Rye grainRye grain: Allergy to kiwi, poppy seeds, and/or sesame seeds often occurs in patients with a simultaneous sensitization to nuts and flour (92). The degree of cross-reactivity among kiwi, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, hazelnuts, and rye grain was found to be very high. Kiwi taken with rye grain may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • Sesame seedsSesame seeds: Allergy to kiwi, poppy seeds, and/or sesame seeds often occurs in patients with a simultaneous sensitization to nuts and flour (92). The degree of cross-reactivity among kiwi, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, hazelnuts, and rye grain was found to be very high. Kiwi taken with sesame seeds may worsen a reaction in sensitive individuals.
  • Tyramine- and tryptophan-containing foodsTyramine- and tryptophan-containing foods: Theoretically, kiwi is associated with an increased amount of serotonin (165). Kiwi plus herbs or supplements that alter serotonin levels may have an effect on the levels of serotonin in the body.

Kiwi/Lab Interactions:
  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: According to research in humans, consumption of three kiwifruits daily reduced blood pressure (47). However, conflicting results have been reported (45). Although daily consumption of two kiwifruits (Actinidia deliciosa) did not produce an effect on diastolic or systolic blood pressure, reduced plasma ACE was observed in male individuals (101).
  • CarotenoidsCarotenoids: In human research, kiwifruit consumption increased levels of lutein (102; 170) and decreased levels of beta-cryptoxanthin (170).
  • CytokinesCytokines: In vitro in 3T3-L1 cells, a fraction of unripe kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) methanolic extract promoted secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-6 (167). In animal research, PG102, an extract of Actinidia arguta, resulted in reduced levels of IL-4 and increased levels of IL-12 (154). In animal research, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) decreased T(H)2 cytokine levels and increased T(H)1 cytokine levels (168). In animal research, a water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta resulted in reduced levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 (22).
  • Eosinophil countsEosinophil counts: In human research (on asymptomatic subjects with atopy), PG102, an extract of Actinidia arguta, resulted in reduced eosinophil counts vs. a control group (48). In animal research, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) resulted in reduced levels of eosinophil counts (154).
  • EotaxinEotaxin: In human research (on asymptomatic subjects with atopy), PG102, an extract of Actinidia arguta, resulted in reduced eotaxin vs. a control group (48). In animal research, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) resulted in reduced levels of eotaxin (154).
  • GlucoseGlucose: In animal research, the methanolic and n-butanolic extracts of kiwifruit leaf (Actinidia deliciosa) had hypoglycemic activity (21). However, human research has found that a significant effect on blood glucose or plasma insulin was lacking after the ingestion of a kiwi-containing drink by male athletes (45).
  • IgEIgE: In human research (in asymptomatic subjects with atopy), PG102, an extract of Actinidia arguta, resulted in reduced IgE vs. a control group (48). In animal research, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) and a water-soluble extract of Actinidia arguta resulted in reduced IgE levels (154; 168; 22).
  • IgGIgG: In animal research, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) resulted in reduced IgG1 levels and increased IgG2 (154; 168).
  • LipidsLipids: In clinical research, hyperlipidemia was found to be a common metabolic adverse effect of PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) (48). However, in other research, consumption of kiwifruit resulted in decreased triglyceride levels (26; 13).
  • Liver enzymesLiver enzymes: In human study, kiwifruit consumption increased plasma levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (102)
  • Lung function testsLung function tests: Asthma and anaphylaxis due to kiwi allergy have been reported (61; 5; 71; 51; 150). According to secondary sources, kiwifruit contains calcium oxalate crystals (raphides), and reactions may include breathing difficulties, wheezing, and collapse. However, a survey suggests that kiwi, and other fruits high in vitamin C, may have a protective effect on lung conditions in children, especially wheezing (44).
  • N-nitroso compoundsN-nitroso compounds: The inhibitory effect of Actinidia chinensis Planch. on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer has been investigated; however, further details are not available at this time (18; 19).
  • Phosphate testPhosphate test: One test showed false positive results with kiwifruit (173).
  • PlateletsPlatelets: Consuming two or three kiwifruit daily for 28 days reduced platelet aggregation response to collagen and ADP by 18% compared with the controls (p<0.05) in one study (13). Concomitant use with other agents that inhibit normal platelet function could theoretically potentiate bleeding risks. In human research, consumption of kiwifruit decreased platelet aggregation (26). Theoretically, the demonstrated antiplatelet activity of kiwi suggests that an interaction with these tests may alter PT time or INR (13).
  • PotassiumPotassium: Theoretically, kiwi may have an effect on the amount of potassium in the body, because kiwi is rich in potassium (1).
  • PT/INRPT/INR: Theoretically, the demonstrated antiplatelet activity of kiwi suggests that an interaction with these tests may alter PT time or INR (13).
  • TocopherolsTocopherols: In human research, kiwifruit consumption decreased levels of gamma-tocopherol (102).
  • Urine testsUrine tests: Ingestion of kiwi may result in an increase in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion (174), with no change in platelet serotonin concentration, due to kiwi's serotonin concentration (165).
  • White blood cell countWhite blood cell count: In animal research, PG102 (extract of Actinidia arguta) resulted in decreased percentages of IL-4-producing T cells and IgE-producing B cells (168).

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The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.