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Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.)

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Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene (transanethole), 2-substituted 4-(3H)-quinazolinones, 3-phenyl-2-propen-l-ol (cinnamyl alcohol), 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-3,4-diol, aitokaneli (Finnish), äkta kanel (Swedish), akupatri (Telugu), albero della cannella (Italian), alpha-amyl cinnamaldehyde, American cinnamon, Batavia cassia, Batavia cinnamon, breyne, canela (Portuguese, Spanish), canela de la China (Portuguese, Spanish), caneleiro (Portuguese), canelero chino (Spanish), canelero de Ceilán (Spanish), canelheira da India (Portuguese-Brazil), cannelier de Chine (French), cannella (Italian), cannella del Ceylan (Italian), cannella della Cina (Italian), cannelle (French), cannelle de Ceylan (French), cannelle de Chine (French), cannelle de Cochinchine (French), cannellier casse (French), cannellier de Ceylan (French), cannellier de Chine (French), cassia (English, Italian), cássia (Portuguese), cássia-aromática (Portuguese), cassia bark, cassia-bark tree, cassia cinnamon, cassia lignea, cassia rou gui, catechins, cây que (Vietnamese), Ceylon cinnamon, ceyloni fahéj (Hungarian), ceyloninkaneli (Finnish), ceylonkanel (Swedish), ceylonski cimet (Croatian), Ceylonzimt (German), Ceylon-Zimt (German), Ceylonzimtbaum (German), chadana (Sanskrit), chek tum phka loeng (Khmer), Chinazimt (German), Chinese-cassia, Chinese cinnamon, Chinesischer Zimt (German), Chinesischer Zimtbaum (German), cin tarçini (Turkish), cinnamal, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamate, cinnamic acid, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamom-dhal chini, Cinnamomi cassiae, Cinnamomi cassiae cortex, Cinnamomi ceylanici cortex, Cinnamomi cortex, Cinnamomi flos, Cinnamomi osmophloeum, Cinnamomi ramulus, Cinnamomom, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Cinnamomum cassia J. Presl, Cinnamomum cinnamon, Cinnamomum loureiroi, Cinnamomum mairei Levl., Cinnamomum migao, Cinnamomum obtusifolium, Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B), Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh., Cinnamomum sieboldii, Cinnamomum sieboldii Meissn., Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum tejpata, Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, cinnamon, cinnamon bark, cinnamon bark essential oil, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamon cortex, cinnamon essential oil, cinnamon extract, cinnamon flower, cinnamon fruit stalks, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon leaf essential oil, cinnamon leaf oil, cinnamon twig, cinnamon water, cinnamophilin, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamyl anthranilate, coca (Sanskrit), cocam (Sanskrit), common cinnamon, condensed tannins, cortex cinnamomi, cortex cinnamomum, coumarin, cunamon cejlonski (Polish), curruva pattai (Sinhalese), cynamon cejlonski (Polish), cynamon chinski (Polish), cynamonowiec cejlonski (Polish), cynamonowiec chinski (Polish), cynamonowiec wonny (tree) (Polish), daalachiini (Nepalese), daalachiinii (Nepalese), daalacinii (Hindi), daaracini (Bengali), daarciinii (Hindi), dal chini (Punjabi), dal ciinii (dalcheeni) (Urdu), dalachini (Marathi), dalachinni (Kannada), dalachinni chakke (Kannada), dalchini (Assamese, Bengali, Hindi), dar chini (Persian), dâr sînî (Arabic), dâr sînî ed dűn (Arabic), dâr sűss (Arabic), darchini (Bengali, Hindi), darusita (Sanskrit), (E)-2-cinnamaldehyde, echter Ceylonzimt (German), echter Kanel (German), echter Zimt (German), (E)-cinnamaldehyde, epicatechins, erikkoloam (Malayalam), eugenol, fahéj (Hungarian), fahéjkasszia (Hungarian), falsa cannella (Italian), false cinnamon, gixin, gong gui (Chinese), guan gui (Chinese-Mandarin), gui (Chinese-Mandarin), gui pi (Chinese-Mandarin), gui xin (Chinese-Mandarin), gui zhi (Chinese), guipi (Chinese-Mandarin), guirou, guixin (Chinese-Mandarin), guizhi (Chinese), guizhi tang, gum, gun gwai (Chinese-Cantonese), gwai sam (Chinese-Cantonese), hiina kaneelipuu (Estonian), hman thin (Burmese), hminthin (Burmese), hushĺllskanel (Swedish), ilavangam (Malayalam, Tamil), jingo tongxiao, jih gwai (Chinese-Cantonese), jungui, kaneel (Danish), kaneelboom (Danish), kanel (Norwegian, Swedish), kanéla (Greek), kanela (Tagalog), kaneli (Finnish), kanelipuu (Finnish), kanell (Icelandic), karun (Malayalam), kashia (Japanese), kashia keihi (Japanese), kasia (Greek), kasiia (Bulgarian), kassia (Finnish, Greek, Hebrew, Norwegian, Swedish), kassiakanel (Danish, Swedish), kassiakaneli (Finnish), Kassie (as C. cassia) (German), kassie (Dutch), kasszia (Hungarian), kayu manis (Malay), kayu manis cina (Malay-Indonesia), keihi, keishi (Japanese), keishi-bukuryo-gan, keychi (Korean), kiinankaneli (Finnish), kínai fahéj (Hungarian), kinamon (Hebrew), kinesisk kanel (Danish), kinesisk kaneltrć (Danish), kinnamomom (Greek), korichnik aromatnyi (Russian), korichnik kitaiskii (Russian), korichnik tsyelonskii (Russian), korichnoe derevo (Russian), korihnoe derevo (Russian), koritsa tseilonskaia (Bulgarian), kuei tsin (Chinese-Mandarin), kukhii taaj (Nepalese), kukjii taaj (Nepalese), kurundu (Sinhalese), kye pi (Korean), Lauraceae (family), laurier casse (French), lauro aromatico (Italian), lauro cassia (Italian), lavangamu (Telugu), lavangapatri (Kannada, Tamil), lavangapatta (Kannada, Telugu), lavangapattai (Malayalam, Tamil), lavangapatte (Kannada), lavangpatram (Malayalam), linalool, Malabar leaf, Malabathrum, Malobathrum, mauh gwai (Chinese-Cantonese), mdalasini (Swahili), monoterpenes, mucilage, mu gui (Chinese-Mandarin), mugui (Chinese-Mandarin), N-acetyl-S-(1-phenyl-2-carboxy ethyl)cysteine, N-acetyl-S-(1-phenyl-3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine, nagkesar (Hindi), nhuc que (Vietnamese), ocotea quixos, Oleum Malabathri, op choei chin (Thai-Bangkok), op choei thet (Thai-Bangkok), padang cassia, padang cinnamon, patrakam (Hindi), pattra (Sanskrit), phenolic compounds, pinene, polyphenol polymers, proanthocyanidins, procyanidin oligomers, qassia (Hebrew), qin, qirfah (Arabic), quarfa (Arabic-Morocco), que don (Vietnamese), que hoi (Vietnamese), que quang (Vietnamese), que rŕnh (Vietnamese), que Srilanca (Vietnamese), que thanh (Vietnamese), ramulus Cinnamomi (Cinnamomum cassia Presl), resin, rou gui (Chinese), rou gui pi (Chinese-Mandarin), rougui (Chinese-Mandarin), sa chwang (sa chouang) (Laotian), Saigon cassia, Saigon cinnamon, saliha (Turkish), salîkhah (Arabic), scortisoara (Romanian), seiron Nikkei (Japanese), sequiterpenes (pinene), sesamin, Seychelles cinnamon, seylan tarçini (Turkish), shinamon (Japanese), sil long gye pi (Korean), skorice (Czech), skorice cejlonská (Czech), skorice cínská (Czech), Sri Lanka cinnamon, sthula tvak (Sanskrit), sweet wood, taj (Sanskrit), talouskaneli (Finnish), tamaala patra (Sanskrit), tamaalaka (Sanskrit), tarçin agaci (Turkish), teipat (Urdu), thi ho thit kya bo (Burmese), thit-ja boh guak (Burmese), thit kya bo (Burmese), tonkin Nikkei (Japanese), transanethole, trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-cinnamic acid, trans-cinnamic alcohol, true cinnamon, tseiloni kaneelipuu (Estonian), tseilonska kanela (Bulgarian), tseilonskaia koritsa (Bulgarian), tuj (Gujarati), tvak (Sanskrit), tvakpatrakka (Sanskrit), utkaTa (Sanskrit), valse kaneel (Dutch), varaangam (Hindi), vayana (Malayalam), xi lan rou gui (Chinese), xiao-jian-zhong, xiao-jian-zhong-tang, yin xiang, yu gui (Chinese-Mandarin), yuhk gwai (Chinese-Cantonese), yuk gwai (Chinese-Cantonese), zi gui (Chinese-Mandarin), Zimt (German), Zimtbaum, (German), Zimtblüte (German), Zimtblüten (German), Zimtcassie (as C. cassia) (German), Zimtrinde (German), Zimtrindle (German).
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine formula examples: Bai Hu Jia Gui Zhi Tang, Da Qing Long Tang, Dang Gui Si Ni Tang, Ge Gen Tang, Gui-Zhi, Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan, Gui Zhi Tang, Ling Gui Zhu Gan Tang, Ma Huang Tang, Tao He Cheng Qi Tang, Tan Yin, Tongbiling, Yi Qi Tong Lin Chingji, Zhi-Shen.
  • Note: The foreign language equivalents above are derived predominantly from the Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum species.
  • Note: This monograph focuses on cinnamon varieties that are edible and does not include Cinnamomum camphora, or the camphor tree, which may be lethal to humans in large doses, or Cinnamomum kotoense, which is an ornamental species.

Background
  • Cinnamon has been used as a spice in several cultures for centuries. It was traditionally used to relieve stomach pain and gas; it is still used for these conditions today. The bark of two cinnamon species (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum cassia) is used as a spice (cinnamon bark).
  • There is a lack of scientific information to support the use of cinnamon for any condition. However, laboratory studies suggest that cinnamon may be useful in the treatment of diabetes (type 2) due to its blood sugar-lowering effects.
  • Furthermore, cinnamon and its constituents may have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties, and it may prove effective in the supportive treatment of conditions such as cancer or severe virus infections.
  • Cinnamon has been granted GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). GRAS substances are considered safe by the experts and not restricted, as is the case with other food additives.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Preliminary evidence suggests that cinnamon may have antiallergic properties. Based on human study, a combination product including Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Malpighia glabra, and Bidens pilosa has demonstrated reduced allergic nasal symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis. More well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


The use of cinnamon for bacterial angina has been reviewed. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Based human study, a dried aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) may improve the antioxidant status of overweight or obese individuals with impaired fasting glucose. More well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Preliminary study suggests that cinnamon may treat bacterial infections including chronic salmonellosis. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Preliminary evidence suggests that cinnamon may have activity against Candida. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Based on human study, cinnamon has been used to control blood sugar; however, results have been mixed in other studies. Further study is needed before a firm conclusion may be made.

C


Preliminary data suggests that a combination herbal eye drop preparation (OphthaCare) may be useful in the treatment of various ophthalmic disorders including: conjunctivitis, conjunctival xerosis (dry eye), acute dacryocystitis, degenerative conditions (pterygium or pinguecula), and disorders in postoperative cataract patients. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Preliminary evidence suggests that cinnamon extracts may be effective against Helicobacter pylori. Based on human study, cinnamon extract was ineffective in ridding of H. pylori. However, the combination of cinnamon with other antimicrobials, or cinnamon extract at a higher concentration, may prove useful. Further well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Preliminary evidence suggests that cassia oil (Cinnamomum cassia) may reduce dust mites. Based on human study, cinnamon may be useful as a mosquito repellant. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Preliminary study suggests that cinnamon may be useful in the treatment of lung cancer. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C


Preliminary study suggests that cinnamon may be useful in the treatment of features of metabolic syndrome in prediabetic subjects. However, well-designed trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be made.

C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Abdominal pain, abortifacient (induces abortion), abscess, acaricidal (kills mites), acne, Alzheimer's disease, analgesic (pain reliever), anesthetic, anthelmintic (expels parasitic worms), anticoagulant (stops blood from clotting), antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet (interferes with the blood ability to clot), antipyretic (reduces fever), antiseptic, antispasmodic (suppresses spasms), antiviral, arrhythmia, arthritis, asthma, benign prostatic hyperplasia, bloating, blood purification, bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, chronic diarrhea, cognitive function, colds/flu, colic, cough, cystitis (inflammation of urinary bladder), dental caries (cavities), deodorant, dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), diarrhea, digestive aid, digestive disorders, diuretic (increases urination), dyspepsia (indigestion), eczema, emmenagogue (stimulates menstruation), flavoring, food poisoning, food preservation, food uses, gastric ulcer, gastritis (stomach lining inflammation), gout, gum disease, gynecologic disorders, HIV/AIDS, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperthyroid (overactive thyroid gland), immunostimulation (stimulates the immune system), inflammatory conditions, kidney disorders, lice, liver disease, long-term debility, loss of appetite, memory loss, movement disorders, muscle aches, nausea, neuralgia (nerve pain), neuroprotective, premature ejaculation, respiratory tract infection, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, sinusitis, skin conditions, snake repellent, sore throat, spermicide, toothache, tumors, urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), urinary disorders, viral infections, weight gain, wound healing.

Dosing

Adults (over 18 years old)

  • There are no proven effective medicinal doses for cinnamon. Cinnamon is likely safe when taken by mouth short-term (up to six weeks) in dosages up to 6 grams daily and in amounts commonly found in foods.
  • As an antioxidant, capsules containing 250 milligrams of cinnamon extract (Cinnulin PF®) twice daily for 12 weeks. For candidiasis, eight lozenges of a commercially available cinnamon candy were taken daily for one week; for oral candidiasis, a solution, made by cooking 250 grams of cinnamon in 2000 milliliters of water on medium heat until there was 500 milliliters of solution (solution defined as 50% cinnamon solution) has been used. This solution has been gargled 4-6 times a day and each time with 20-30 milliliters of the solution. For diabetes, various doses of cinnamon (capsules, powder, extract) have been studied. 1-6 grams of cinnamon daily has been used for up to 90 days. For Helicobacter pylori infection, 80 milligrams of cinnamon extract daily was used for four weeks. For metabolic syndrome, 500 milligrams of a water-soluble cinnamon extract, Cinnulin PF®, is recommended by the manufacturer. As an insect repellant, various doses have been studied including a single application of cream containing 5% (w/w) cassia oil (containing 5 grams of cassia oil) for up to 120 minutes.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • There is no proven safe or effective medicinal dose of cinnamon in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to cinnamon, its constituents, members of the Lauraceae family, or Balsam of Peru.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Cinnamon is likely safe when taken by mouth short-term.
  • As with any spice or drug, cinnamon can be contaminated by microorganisms during storage. Caution is advised when choosing cinnamon products.
  • Some people may be allergic or sensitive to cinnamon, but this is rare. Skin rash and inflammation, mouth sores, tongue inflammation, gum disease, acne, mouth lesions, and inflammation of the lips have been noted after applying cinnamon (e.g. cinnamon oils, flavored chewing-gums, mints, or toothpastes) on the mouth or face. Cinnamaldehyde (the chemical compound that gives cinnamon its spice) may cause swelling of the lips, mouth tissue, and the face, hives, skin rash, and mouth sores. Prolonged exposure to cinnamon-flavored gum may cause cancer.
  • Asthma and other breathing difficulties were seen in spice-factory workers.
  • Large amounts of cinnamon may be toxic to the liver due to possible coumarin content. Caution is advised when using other medications that may be hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver).
  • Although not well studied in humans, large amounts of cinnamon (more than those found in foods) should be avoided in pregnant women due to possible abortion inducing effects.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking drugs that affect the function of the immune system.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking drugs that lower cholesterol.
  • Although not well studied in humans, cinnamon bark may cause a decrease in platelet counts in the blood after long-term use.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking drugs, herbs, or supplements broken down by the liver. Use cautiously in patients with liver damage.
  • Cinnamon may lower blood sugar levels. Use cautiously in patients with diabetes or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
  • Cinnamon may enhance the effect of antibiotics.
  • Cinnamon may interact with cardiovascular (heart) agents, due to its several effects on blood and the cardiovascular system (e.g. antiarrhythmic properties). Use cautiously in people with heart conditions.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

  • Cinnamon is not recommended in medicinal amounts in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
  • Although not well studied in humans, large amounts of cinnamon (more than those found in foods) should be avoided in pregnant women due to possible abortion inducing effects.
  • Cinnamon may act as a spermicide, thereby preventing pregnancy by killing sperm; however, it is not recommended as a form of birth control.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Cinnamon may have antibacterial activity. Use cautiously with antibiotic medications, due to possible additive effects.
  • Cinnamon may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Cinnamon may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • The antifungal properties of cinnamon may enhance the effect of commonly used antifungals.
  • Cinnamon may have antispasmodic effects. Use cautiously if taking other antispasmodics.
  • Cinnamon bark extract may have antiviral effects. Use cautiously if taking antiviral medications, due to possible additive effects.
  • Cinnamon may affect heart rate and thus may interact with heart rate regulating agents. Caution is advised in people taking agents for heart conditions.
  • Cinnamon may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of drugs in the blood may be altered.
  • Cinnamon may have effects on the immune system. Use cautiously with other agents that alter the immune system. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, to check for interactions.
  • Cinnamon may lower cholesterol. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower cholesterol.
  • Cinnamon may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood pressure.
  • Cinnamon may be toxic to the liver in large amounts due to possible coumarin content. Caution is advised when using other medications that may be hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver).
  • Cinnamon may interact with alcohol, drugs that are used to treat Alzheimer's disease, analgesics (pain relievers), drugs that decrease inflammation, anti-cancer drugs, anti-obesity drugs, aspirin, dexamethasone, drugs that affect GABA, estrogen, indomethacin, sympathomimetics, terfenadine, or tetracycline.

Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements

  • Cinnamon may have antibacterial activity. Use cautiously with antibacterial herbs and supplements, due to possible additive effects.
  • Cinnamon may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking herbs or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and doses may need adjustment.
  • Cinnamon may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto.
  • The antifungal properties of cinnamon may enhance the effects of commonly used antifungals.
  • Cinnamon bark has been shown to contain very high concentrations of antioxidants. Use cautiously with herbs and supplements that are taken for their antioxidant effects, due to possible additive effects.
  • Cinnamon may have antispasmodic effects. Use cautiously with other antispasmodics.
  • Cinnamomumcassia bark extract may have antiviral effects. Use cautiously with antiviral herbs or supplements, due to possible additive effects.
  • Cinnamon may affect heart rate and thus may interact with heart rate regulating agents. People taking herbs or supplements that alter heart rate should use cinnamon with caution.
  • Cinnamon may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements in the body may be altered.
  • Cinnamon may have effects on the immune system; use cautiously with herbs and supplements with similar effects.
  • Cinnamon may lower cholesterol; use cautiously with herbs and supplements with similar effects
  • Cinnamon may lower blood pressure. Caution is advised when using other herbs or supplements that may also lower blood pressure.
  • Cinnamon may be toxic to the liver in large amounts due to possible coumarin content. Caution is advised when using other herbs or supplements that may be hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver).
  • Cinnamon may interact with herbs or supplements that are used to treat Alzheimer's disease, analgesics (pain relievers), herbs or supplements that decrease inflammation, anti-cancer herbs or supplements, anti-obesity herbs or supplements, herbs or supplements that affect GABA, herbs or supplements with hormonal effects, clove, ephedra, or artemisia.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
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  12. Vanschoonbeek K, Thomassen BJ, Senden JM, et al. Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients. J Nutr 2006;136(4):977-980.
  13. White A, Nunes C, Escudier M, et al. Improvement in orofacial granulomatosis on a cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet. Inflamm.Bowel.Dis 2006;12(6):508-514.
  14. Zhao X, Zhu JX, Mo SF, et al. Effects of cassia oil on serum and hepatic uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver. J Ethnopharmacol 2-20-2006;103(3):357-365.
  15. Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Mendel, R. W., Landis, J., and Anderson, R. A. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women. J Int.Soc.Sports Nutr. 2006;3:45-53.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.